Download Non-Cooperation Movement Hindi PDF
You can download the Non-Cooperation Movement Hindi PDF for free using the direct download link given at the bottom of this article.
|File name||Non-Cooperation Movement Hindi PDF|
|No. of Pages||3|
|File size||1 MB|
|Date Added||Nov 21, 2022|
Non-Cooperation Movement Overview
As you all would know that the Non-Cooperation Movement was formally started. This movement started on 1 August 1920. After this, the resolution of this movement was passed in the Calcutta session of the Congress on 4 September 1920.
After it was passed in the Calcutta session of the Congress, this movement was accepted by the Congress as its formal movement. This was the first mass movement to be run under the supervision of Mahatma Gandhi, who was also the mass base of this movement. Under this, Gandhiji had said that if non-cooperation was followed properly, India would attain Swaraj within a year.
Background of the Non-Cooperation Movement
- The imperialist regime took such steps which made it necessary to fight against it.
- In such a period (1919) when public discontent was taking a wide form and an effective leadership had come on the stage to give direction to it.
- The brutal massacre of Jallianwala Bagh (where General Dyer opened fire on unarmed people without warning and killed or injured thousands of people) etc. gave birth to the non-cooperation movement and prepared the background of the non-cooperation movement.
- These steps were the anti-Muslim stand on the question of the Khilafat, the passing of the Rowlatt Laws (which allowed the administration to arrest and detain individuals without trial).
History and Program of the Non-Cooperation Movement:
In view of the events of 1919, Mahatma Gandhi decided to start the non-cooperation movement in the Calcutta special session of the Congress in September 1920 and got a resolution passed in this regard. The author of the non-cooperation movement resolution was Mahatma Gandhi himself. The proposal of non-cooperation movement was put forward by CR Das, this proposal was again approved in December 1920 at Nagpur annual session.
The Non-Cooperation Movement was started to emphasize the following main demands (causes of the Non-Cooperation Movement) –
- Khilafat issue
- Rowlatt Act
- Demand for justice against Jallianwala Bagh and subsequent persecution in Punjab
- attainment of self-rule
- Mahatma Gandhi was initially in favor of co-operation with the British Government, but after four major events in 1919, Mahatma Gandhi lost faith in the fairness and honesty of the British Government and decided to run the Non-Cooperation Movement. For this Mahatma Gandhi organized a session of Congress in Kolkata in September 1920 to consider the programme.
- In this convention, Gandhiji while presenting non-cooperation resolution said that the English government is a devil with whom cooperation is not possible. For achieving Swaraj, we should adopt the policy of progressive non-violent non-cooperation.
- Opposing this proposal of Gandhiji, Annie Besant said that this proposal is the biggest blow to Indian independence, a foolish protest and a declaration of struggle against society and all life Surendranath Banerjee Madan Mohan Malaviya Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das Vipin Chandra Pal Mohammad Ali Jinnah Nair and Sir Narayan Chandravarkar initially opposed this proposal, yet the proposal was accepted with the support of Ali brothers and Motilal Nehru. This was the precipitation from where the Gandhi era began.
- Lala Lajpat Rai and Chittaranjan Das withdrew their protest regarding the non-cooperation resolution in the Congress session held in Nagpur in December 1920. In Nagpur, Gandhi declared the new goal of Swaraj in place of the old goal of the Congress of self-rule within the British Empire. He also said that if necessary, the goal of Swaraj could be achieved outside the British Empire.
- Leaders like Annie Besant, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Vipin Chandra Pal, GS Khaparde left the Congress dissatisfied with Gandhiji’s proposal. The Nagpur session is important from the historical point of view because here it was accepted to actively oppose the government by abandoning the goal of achieving Swaraj under legal means.
Boycott of prince of wales:
- On the arrival of the Prince of Wales in India in April, 1921, he was welcomed by showing black flags everywhere. Gandhi ji boycotted the visit of Prince of Wales to India due to non-release of Ali brothers.
- When the Prince of Wales arrived in Bombay, present day Mumbai, on 17 November 1921, he was greeted by a nationwide strike. Meanwhile, in December 1921, the Congress session was held in Ahmedabad.
- Here a plan was made to speed up the non-cooperation movement and run the civil disobedience movement.
Decision to end the movement:
- Meanwhile, on February 5, 1922, at a place named Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur district, the police forcibly tried to stop a procession, as a result of which the people got angry and set the police station on fire, in which a police station officer and 21 soldiers died.
- Gandhiji was shocked by this incident. Regarding the decision to end the non-cooperation movement in the Congress meeting held in Bardoli on February 12, 1922, Gandhiji wrote in Young India that, “To save the movement from turning violent, I will accept every insult, every torturous boycott, Even death is ready to bear.
- Now Gandhi ji emphasized on constructive works.